|Military ranks of Egypt|
ranks (until 1958)
|General of the army/|
As'ad from Indonesia or Muqaddam/Bagdadiyyah: an approach of learning the recitation of Qur'an. Iqra', cara cepat belajar membaca al-Qur'an [Iqra', the fast. Sebuah rancangan pendidikan mengenai ilmu belajar mengaji muqaddam yang disiarkan pada tahun 1982.Rancangan Muqaddam ini mula disiarkan oleh Radio. Adik adik boleh Belajar Tajwid sekali hanya didalam telefon. Muqaddam ini menggunakan format PDF file yang adik adik perlu memuat turun file Adobe Reader terlebih.
Muqaddam is an Arabic title, adopted in other Islamic cultures, for any of various civil or religious officials. The literal meaning is something like 'expediter', 'facilitator', or 'assistant'.
- in the Tijaniyyah, Shadhiliyyah, and other Sufi orders, a muqaddam is a student of the Sufi path (a murid or dervish) who has been authorized by his/her Guide (akashaikh, pir, or murshid) to assist in teaching the path to other students.
- in Bengal, the muqaddam (in some places he was called mukhiya) was the village headman, through whom the government dealt with the peasants.
- As per the Persian documents of medieval India, a muqaddam was the headman of a village. He was, by profession, a peasant of the village which he headed. He could sell and buy land for the village and settle the common treasury. His position was hereditary; however, it could also be bought and sold. He was never a government servant, but he could be dispossessed of his status by the revenue official.
- in Mount Lebanon, the Muqaddams were the secular leaders of their religious community. The last Muqaddams disappeared in the beginning of the 16th Century.
- in the militaries (generally ground forces and sometimes air forces) of several Arab nations, Muqaddam is equivalent to the Anglophone rank of lieutenant colonel.
- ^Habib, Irfan: The Agrarian System of Mughal India, Oxford University Press, 2004, ISBN0-19-565595-8, pp. 160–161.
- ^Army officer ranks